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SIP Nordic – Råvaruguiden – juni 2013

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SIP Nordic - Analys av råvaror

SIP Nordic - RåvaruguidenSilver – gulds vilda lillebror

Silver är med största sannolikhet en av de mest volatila av världens populära marknader. När silver rör sig, rör sig silver snabbt. Både stora vinster och förluster kan ske under loppet av några veckor, vilket kan vara spännande eller skräckinjagande beroende på vilken sida du sitter på.

Silver har haft en tuff start på året med en nedgång på drygt 25 %. Samtidigt har guld tappat runt 17 %. En skillnad på 8 procentenheter. Silver en guldprodukt med hävstång

Att silver tappat mer än guld är ingen slump. Silver omnämns inte så ofta i medier. Däremot skrivs det och analyseras det kring gulds vara och inte vara och här finns det gott om information att hämta. För att följa silvers utveckling räcker det att kolla på guld.

Silver kan beskrivas som gulds vilda lillebror som gärna gör som storebror men lite yvigare. Med andra ord brukar silver följa guldets dagliga utveckling men med större rörelser.

Om man kollar på hur den dagliga utvecklingen för guld och silver varit sedan januari 2012 styrks ovanstående teori.

Av de totalt 369 handelsdagarna rörde sig guld och silver åt samma håll i 289 dagar av dessa. Nästan 80 % av dagarna.

Kollar man sedan vidare på de dagar då guld och silver rörde sig åt samma håll överpresterade silver guld 222 dagar av dessa eller 80 % av dagarna.

Värt att notera är att de dagar som guld och silver rör sig åt samma håll rör sig silver 3,3 gånger kraftigare i snitt. Således är silver en guldprodukt med hävstång.

Egentligen är det inte så konstigt att detta fenomen finns. I vår Tradingklubb på tisdagar pratar vi ofta om att man inte ska gå emot marknadsklimatet. Med det menas att man inte ska ta en position i en aktie i motsatt riktning som OMXS30 trendar. Så gäller nog även silver och guld. Frågan är hur många stora investerare som vågar gå lång i silver samtidigt som guld går ned och vice versa.

Alexander Frick

Råvaror – Energi

Brent olja

  • Berg och dalbanan fortsätter. Under maj har brent ökat med 2,2 %. För året är dock brent ned knappa 6 %.
  • Oljan kämpar mot rapporter från OECD och IMF om att Kinas tillväxt ser sämre ut.
  • Vidare så håller ökade lager priset nere.
  • Ökad oro för åtstramningar på tillgångssidan till följd av oroligheter i mellanöstern motarbetar de negativa nyheterna.
  • Utvecklingen för USD och huruvida FED kommer fortsätta med sitt QE kommer styra mycket för oljans fortsatta utveckling.

Prognoser på brent-olja

Naturgas

  • Naturgas starka trend fortsätter. Trots en rekyl under maj månad är trenden fortsatt uppåt.
  • Naturgas tappade ca 3.5 % under maj men är för året ändå upp nästan 30 %.
  • Rekylen under maj månad kan mycket väl ha varit hälsosam och skapat en ny högre botten.
  • Ökningen av lagrad naturgas är nu på mycket låga nivåer. De lägsta på fem år.
  • Återigen är det vädret i USA som till stor del driver uppgången. En vinter som var kallare än normalt har nu skiftet till en varmare vår vilket gör att bränsle krävs för kylsystem.

Prognos för pris på naturgas

Råvaror – Metaller

Guld

  • Dödskorset (50D- korsar 200D-medelvärde uppifrån) i februari visade sig ge ordentligt med bränsle åt nedgången.
  • Under maj fortsatte nedgången och guld gick ned 4,7 %. För året är guld ned 15 %.
  • Viktig nivå kring $1350. Återstår att se om denna nivå skapat en dubbelbotten.
  • Medierapportering om att FED skulle ge upp sitt stödköpsprogram har inte hjälpt guldkursen. FED fortsätter att pumpa in smått otroliga $85 miljarder USD och håller räntan låg.
  • Riskaptiten är fortsatt hög varför mycket guld säljs av för inslussning i aktiemarknaden.

Prognos på guldpris för 2013 och 2014

Silver

  • Som jag skrev i min krönika följer silver guld slaviskt.
  • För maj månad är silver ned dryga 8 % och för året är silver ned 25 %.
  • Likt guld tar silver stryk av att riskaptiten fortsatt är hög och behovet av en ”säker hamn” är svalt.
  • Silver har den senaste tiden testat stödet vid $22. Intressant nivå att bevaka den närmsta tiden.

Prognos på silverpriset för 2013 och 2014

Platina

  • Platina fortsätter att prisa högre än guld. Under maj är priset på platina ned knappa 3 %.
  • För året är platina ned knappa 4 %.
  • Till skillnad från guld och silver drivs platina till största del av industriell efterfrågan. Bilindustrin (autokatalysatorer) går knackigt vilket trycker ner platina.
  • Spekulanter ligger i övervikt i korta positioner vilket kan tala för en fortsatt nedgång.

Prognos på platinapris för 2013 och 2014

Koppar

  • Under maj ökade koppar med 4 %. För året är dock koppar ned dryga 8 %.
  • Rapporter om sämre kinesisk tillväxt pressar priset nedåt.
  • Under maj månad kan vi dock ha sett ett trendskifte.
  • FED flaggar för att ekonomin återhämtar sig vilket kan hjälpa kopparn. Dessutom har två ras i stora gruvor skapat ett litet stopp i produktionsledet vilket drar ned tillgången.

Prognos på kopparpris för 2013 och 2014

Zink

  • Utsikten för basmetaller har ljusnat något. Under maj är zink oförändrat vilket är bra med tanke på att zink tappat 9 %.
  • Motståndet kring $1800 har visat sig hålla och likt koppar kan ett trendskifte var på gång. Rekyler värda att bevaka.
  • Ytterligare fakta som talar för en vändning är att lagren av zink nu är de lägsta på tre år.

Prognos på zinkpris för 2013 och 2014

Nickel

  • För nickel går det tyngre. Ett dödskors i april kan mycket väl vara starten på fortsatt nedgång.
  • Nickel är för året ned drygt 14 %.
  • Under maj tappade nickel nästan 3 %.
  • Nickel presterade sämst av alla basmetaller under 2012. Slutsiffran blev -8 % för 2012.
  • Nickelmarknaden är fortsatt mättad med ökande lager.
  • Många stora projekt inom nickelproduktion är redan finansierade och irreversibla vilket kommer att öka tillgången av nickel ytterligare.

Prognos på nickelpris för 2013 och 2014

Råvaror – Jordbruk

Socker

  • Sockers kräftgång fortsätter. Sedan oktober förra året är sockerpriset ned 23 %.
  • För året är sockerpriset ned drygt 14 % och maj var inte bättre. Ned 5 %.
  • En anledning till det fortsatta prisfallet är att nuvarande nivåer inte motiverar sockerproduktion. Andra grödor eller etanol ses som mer attraktiva.
  • Socker har befunnit sig i en negativ trend i snart 2 år. Det är fortfarande långt ned till bottennivåerna där det återigen blir attraktivt för ett köp.

Prognos för pris på socker år 2013 och 2014

Bomull

  • Bomullspriset utvecklades starkt under början av 2013. Nu har dock priset fallit sedan i mars och trenden börjar så smått peka nedåt.
  • För året är priset på bomull upp 7,8 %.
  • Sedan toppen i mars är dock bomull ned med 12 % vilket visar att säljarna återigen kopplat greppet. Även i maj har de haft kontrollen. Bomull tappade i maj 5 %.

Prognos för pris på bomull år 2013 och 2014

Majs

  • Sedan förra sommarens kraftiga uppgång till följd av dålig skörd har majs befunnit sig i en negativ trend.
  • För året har majs tappat 4 %.
  • Under maj månad tappade majs knappa 3 %.
  • För många spannmål väntas goda eller mycket goda skördar vilket kan trycka ned priset ytterligare.

Prognos för priset på majs år 2013 och 2014

Vete

  • För vete gäller samma sak. Sedan förra sommarens topp är trenden negativ.
  • God skörd väntas även här så försiktighet gäller.
  • För året är vete ned 11 %.
  • Under maj är priset på vete ned något.

Prognos på vetepris år 2013 och 2014

Apelsinjuice

  • Vi har länge bevakat apelsinjuice i Tradingklubben.
  • För året är apelsinjuice upp 20 %.
  • I maj är priset upp 5 %.
  • Floridas citrusodlare brottas just nu med det allvarligaste hotet det någonsin stått inför, en bakteriell sjukdom utan botemedel som har smittat samtliga de 31 länen i vilka det odlas apelsiner och citroner.

Prisutveckling på apelsinjuice

Kaffe

  • Kaffe ligger fortfarande i en långsiktigt nedåtgående trend.
  • För året är kaffe ned 13 %. I maj stannade nedgången på hela 11 %
  • Likt apelsinjuice kämpar dock odlare med sjukdomar. Något som kanske kan vända trenden.
  • Växtsjukdomen Roya, också känt som kafferost eller kaffebladssvamp, är en liten orangefärgad svamp som nu har nått Centralamerika.

Prognos på kaffepris för 2013 och 2014

[box]Denna uppdatering är producerat av SIP Nordic och publiceras i samarbete och med tillstånd på Råvarumarknaden.se[/box]

Ansvarsbegränsning

Detta produktblad utgör endast marknadsföring och har sammanställts av SIP Nordic Fondkommission AB.

Innehållet ger inte fullständig information avseende det finansiella instrumentet. Investerare uppmanas att del av prospekt och slutliga villkor, vilka finns tillgängliga på: www.rbsbank.se/markets, innan ett investeringsbeslut tas.

Förekommande exempel är simulerade och baseras på SIP Nordics egna beräkningar och antaganden, en person som använder andra data eller antaganden kan nå andra resultat. Administrativa avgifter och transaktionsavgifter påverkar den faktiska avkastningen.

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Analys

Metals price forecast: Lower Before Higher

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SEB - analysbrev på råvaror

Lower before higher

SEB - Prognoser på råvaror - Commodity

The world is slowing down along with fiscal and monetary tightening. The rapid rise in interest rates this year will work with a lag so the slowdown in the real economy is likely to continue. We expect metals prices to ease along with that. The continued deterioration in the Chinese property market is likely structural with growth shifting towards higher value sectors including green energy and EVs. Chinese credit expansion has started. Stronger demand for metals like copper, nickel and aluminium is likely to emerge in H2-23. Strong prices for metals over the coming decade due to sub-par capex spending over the past decade is likely.

Bjarne Schieldrop, Chief analyst commodities at SEB
Bjarne Schieldrop, Chief analyst commodities, SEB

Weakening macro and weakening demand. The world is now in the grip of a tightening craze amid inflation panic which was the result of the stimulus boom ignited by Covid-19 panic. The US expanded its M2 monetary base by 30% of GDP during the stimulus boom. Donald Trump earlier clamped down on immigration from Mexico/Latin America. Rampant consumer spending on capital goods together with an ultra-tight labor market then led to intense inflation pressure in the US. But also, in many other countries which also stimulated too much. The US is ahead of the curve with respect to interest rate hikes. The USD has rallied, forcing many central banks around the world to lift rates to defend their currencies as well as fighting their own inflationary pressures. The Japanese central bank has refrained from doing so and has instead intervened in the yen currency market for the first time since 1998. The year 2022 will likely be the worst selloff in global government bonds since 1949 as interest rates rise rapidly from very low levels. This is taking place following a decade where the world has been gorging on ultra-cheap debt. There is clearly a risk that something will break apart somewhere in the financial system as the world gallops through this extreme roller coaster ride of stimulus and tightening. On top of this we have and energy crisis in Europe where natural gas prices for year 2023 currently is priced at 700% of normal levels. War in Ukraine, risk for the use of nuclear weapons, an enduring cool-down of the Chinese property market and continued lock-downs in China due to Covid-19 is adding plenty of uncertain elements.

Downside price risks for metals over the coming 6-9 months. The significant rise in rates around the world will work with a lag. There can be up to a 12-month lag from rates starts to rise to when they take real effect. Continued economic cool-down in the economy is thus likely. Chinese politicians seem unlikely to run yet another round of property market-based stimulus. As such there are clearly downside risks to global economic growth and industrial metals prices over the coming 6 months.

China may be a “White Swan Event” in H2-23 onward. LME’s China seminar in London on Monday 24 October this year was very interesting. The brightest spot in our view was Jinny Yang, the Chief China economist at ICBC Standard Bank. She stated that China may turn out to be a “white swan event” in H2-2023. Further that the Chinese economy now is on a decade long type of transition period. Away from property focused growth. With a shift instead to technology and innovation, telecoms and energy transition, consumer demand side economy and higher value and more advanced sectors. The property market will be a fading sector with respect to growth. Chinese politicians are fully committed to the energy transition. No slowdown in there. Credit expansion has already started. The real effect of that will emerge in H2-23. The new growth focus will be different from before. But it will still imply lots of metals like aluminium, copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, manganese, and other special metals. There will be less copper for pipes and wiring for housing but there will be more copper for EVs, Solar power, Wind power and power networks etc.

Copper: Struggling supply from Chile, rising supply from Africa while Russian exports keeps flowing to market. The Chinese housing market normally accounts for 20% of global copper demand. So, slowing Chinese housing market is bad for copper. Russian exports keep flowing to SE Asia where it is re-exported. Good supply growth is expected from Africa in 2023. Supply from Chile is struggling with falling ore grades, political headwinds, and mining strikes. Demand is projected to boom over the coming decades while investments in new mines have been sub-par over the past decade. So strong prices in the medium to longer term. But in the short-term the negative demand forces will likely have the upper hand.

Nickel: Tight high-quality nickel market but surplus for low-quality nickel. There is currently a plentiful supply of low-grade nickel with weak stainless-steel demand and strong demand for high quality nickel for EV batteries. The result is a current USD 5-6000/ton price premium for high-quality vs. low-quality nickel. High-quality LME grade nickel now only accounts for 25% of the global nickel market. Over the coming decade there will be strong demand growth for high-quality nickel for EV batteries, but high-quality NiSO4 will take center stage. The price of high-quality nickel over the coming decade will depend on how quickly the world can ramp up low-grade to high-grade conversion capacity.

Aluminium: Russian production and exports keeps flowing at normal pace to the market through different routes. Supply from the western world set to expand by 1.3 m ton pa in 2023, the biggest expansion in a decade. Demand is projected to grow strongly over the decade to come with energy transition and EVs being strong sources of demand. Western premiums likely to stay elevated versus Asian premiums to attract metal. Increasing focus on low carbon aluminium. But weakness before strength.

SEB commodities price forecast:

SEB commodities price forecast

Chinese credit cycle vs industrial metals. Chinese credit expansion has already started.

Chinese credit cycle vs industrial metals
Source: SEB calculations, data from Blberg

This report has been compiled by SEB´s Commodity Research, a division within Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB (publ) (”SEB”), to provide background information only.

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Analys

Europe’s energy policy unravels a potential advantage for US energy over Europe

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WisdomTree
WidsomTree

The clock is ticking for Europe to shield its economy amidst the current energy crisis. The cost of electricity across the European bloc is nearly 10 times the 10-year average in response to Russia cutting back natural gas supplies in retaliation to sanctions. There has been a substantial increase in the share of supply of Liquidifies Natural Gas (LNG) and alternative suppliers as a direct replacement of waning Russian gas supply.

Figure 1: Natural gas flows in the European market, first half 2022 versus first half 2021

Karta hur importen av naturgas till Europa har förändrats
Source: Bruegel, WisdomTree as of 6 September 2022. Please note: Arrows width indicates size of 2022 flow.

European leaders are racing to come up with a plan on energy intervention in the power markets. One of the measures being touted is imposing an energy windfall tax on oil and gas profits to help households and businesses survive this upcoming winter season. The plan is to re-channel these unexpected profits from the energy sector to help domestic consumers and companies pay these high bills. The windfall tax on the oil and gas companies should be treated as a “solidarity contribution,” according to European Commission (EC) President, Ursula von der Leyen.

Imposing a windfall tax on those profiting from the war

A windfall tax would impose a levy on the revenues generated by non-gas producing companies when market prices exceed €200 per megawatt hour (Mwh) and redistribute excess revenues to vulnerable companies and households. There has been greater consensus among other European Union (EU) countries on the windfall tax compared to other parts of the European Commission’s 5-point plan. This includes – setting a price cap on Russian gas, a mandatory reduction in peak electricity demand, funding for ailing utility companies, a windfall tax on fossil fuel companies and changes to collateral requirements for electricity companies. The EC’s plan will need to meet the approval of the bloc before being enforced. The most controversial issue remains the Russian price cap – aimed at penalising Russia for weaponising energy.

Coordinated energy policy needed despite different energy mix across EU bloc

There are major differences between member states based on those that rely on coal, nuclear or renewable power owing to which imposing a one energy policy will be challenging. Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia, known to import large amounts of Russian gas are against the price cap on Russian gas. On the other hand, a number of  EU countries including France, Italy, and Poland, support a cap, but argue it should apply to all imported forms of the fuel, including LNG. Germany is undecided but fears the disagreements on the price caps risk spoiling EU unity. Spain, a big generator of wind and solar power was quick to draw criticism of the proposed €200/Mwh as it does not correspond to the real costs and fails to support electrification and the deployment of renewables.

In the US, various Senators including Senate Finance Chair Ron Wyden, have proposed legislation that would double the tax rate of large oil and gas companies excess profits. However, given the current political climate it seems increasingly unlikely that these proposals would gain any traction in Congress.

Europe’s energy policy likely to put a strain on capex in the near term

Since the oil price plunge from 2014 to 2016 alongside climate change awareness and Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) mandates, the energy sector saw a sharp decline in capital expenditure (capex). Since then, capex in the global energy sector has failed to attain the levels last seen at the peak in 2014. While capex trends in Europe’s energy sector had begun to outpace that of the US, driven mainly by a rise in the share of spending on clean energy, we believe the impending energy crisis and energy policy including the national windfall levies in Europe are likely to disincentivise capex in Europe compared to the US over the medium term. High prices are encouraging several countries to step up fossil fuel investment, as they seek to secure and diversify their sources of supply.

Source: Bloomberg, WisdomTree as of 31 August 2022.

The divergent energy policies and prevalent supply situations in the US and Europe opens up a potential opportunity in the energy sector. The energy sector has been the unique bright spot in global equity markets in 2022 posting the strongest earnings results in H1 2022. Despite its strong price performance, the US energy sector trades at a price to earnings (P/E) ratio of 8x and has a dividend yield of 3%. In September 2008, the energy sector had a 12.5% weight in the S&P 500 and was the fourth largest sector by market capitalisation in the world’s largest economy and equity market. Fast forward to today, the energy sector accounts for only 4% of the S&P 500 Index. While the future trajectory is greener, the world has come to terms with the fact that we will require oil and gas in the interim in order to fulfil our energy requirements. Investment is increasing in all parts of the energy sector, but the main boost in recent years has come from the power sector – mainly in renewables and grids – and from increased spending on end-use efficiency. As Europe plans to reduce its reliance on Russian energy supply, it will become more reliant on US LNG imports. This should fuel further investment in the US energy sector in the interim.

Aneeka Gupta, Director, Macroeconomic Research, WisdomTree

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Agricultural commodities could offer a hedge against inflation

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WisdomTree
WidsomTree

Agricultural commodity prices have been buoyed higher by rising grain and oilseed prices. At a time, when global equities have sold off by nearly 13.88% amidst soaring inflation and tightening liquidity conditions, agricultural commodities are up 26.8%. There are a plethora of supply side issues emanating from the war that are likely to continue to drive prices higher – the rise of protectionism, higher fertiliser costs, changing biofuel mandates and adverse weather conditions to name a few. The Russia-Ukraine war has had ripple effects from disrupting supply chains to raising fertiliser costs.

Rising protectionism buoys agricultural commodities higher

The war-related disruptions have also given rise to protectionism. To cite a few examples in 2022– India, the world’s third largest wheat producer, announced it would restrict wheat exports to manage domestic supplies of the grain, which led to a sharp rise in wheat prices. Indonesia also announced an export ban on palm oil on April 28, but the ban was lifted on May 19 after hundreds of farmers rallied to protest the move. In a tight oil-seeds markets, the initial announcement led soybean oil, an alternative to palm oil, sharply higher.

Source: WisdomTree as of 7 June 2022

Higher biofuel blending mandates to bolster demand for corn and soybean oil

Changes in the biofuel blending mandates are also poised to increase demand for agricultural commodities. The US is home to the world’s largest biofuel market. The Biden administration is ordering refiners to boost the use of biofuels such as corn-based ethanol. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requiring refiners to mix 20.63 billion gallons of renewable fuels into gasoline and diesel this year, marking a 9.5% increase over last year’s target. This will put pressure on refiners to blend more biofuel into their gasoline production this year, resulting in a net positive impact on the biofuels industry. Grains such as corn stand to benefit owing to their high starch content and relatively easy conversion to ethanol. Amidst waning stockpiles of diesel, Brazil is also considering increasing the biodiesel blend to 15% from 10% (i.e. the amount of soybean oil blended into trucking fuel). This has the potential to bolster demand for soybeans at a time when soybeans are already in short supply due to droughts in South America and US plantings trail last year’s pace.

Rising fertiliser costs are weakening demand, in turn lowering yields

The Russia-Ukraine conflict has caused disruptions in fertiliser production and material price increases, which has put farmer margins and agricultural yields at risk elsewhere, driving the prices of most agricultural commodities higher. Russia and Ukraine account for a significant share of the global fertiliser trade. Russia produces 9% of global nitrogen fertiliser, 10% of global phosphate fertiliser, and 20% of global potash fertiliser. It exports more than two thirds of its production of each product. Belarus produces an additional 17% of global potash and exports most of it.

Owing to its high soil quality, Argentina tends to use less fertilisers, but Brazil (the world’s largest importer of fertilisers) of which 85% of its needs are imported, is likely to feel the impact more. Russia alone accounts for 25% of Brazil’s total fertiliser imports. Farmers can also plant more soybeans, which require less fertilisers than corn. The US and global corn balance are set to continue to tighten, which suggests that the current high price environment is set to linger. The high prices and low availability of fertilisers is making farmers reduce usage and is also resulting in lower fertiliser prices similar to the trend witnessed back in 2008.

Ammonia prices
Source: Bloomberg, WisdomTree as of 27 May 2022.

Speculative positioning garnering momentum among agricultural commodities 

According to data from the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), net speculative positioning in agricultural commodities has risen considerably since the covid pandemic. Tighter supply coupled with stockpiling by national governments concerned about food security has led to a rise in agricultural commodity prices. Not only has net speculative positioning on agricultural commodities risen versus its own history but also in comparison to other commodity subsectors, as illustrated in the chart below:

Speculative positions
Source: WisdomTree, CFTC, Bloomberg as of 25 May 2022.

Adverse weather conditions impact agricultural commodities

El Niño and La Niña are the warm and cool phases of a recurring climate pattern across the tropical Pacific—the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or “ENSO” for short. The pattern shifts back and forth irregularly every two to seven years, and each phase triggers predictable disruptions of temperature, precipitation. The current La Niña has been around since October 2021. It has been responsible for the South American droughts, milder weather in Southern parts of US and heavy rainfalls across the Pacific Northwest. There is a 51% chance La Niña could continue into the December to February period, with those odds down from last month’s forecast of 58% according to the US climate prediction centre. The waters across the equatorial Pacific Ocean are expected to stay cool or be close to normal between June and September, which means the influence on weather patterns won’t be enough to disrupt tropical storms and hurricanes in the Atlantic.  

Conclusion

Agricultural commodities have posted a strong performance in 2022. Yet there remain plenty of factors that could drive the performance of this commodity subsector even higher. Agricultural commodities are unique owing to their high dependence on weather conditions that make them volatile but also offer diversification benefits.

Aneeka Gupta, Director, Macroeconomic Research, WisdomTree

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