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SIP Nordic – Nytt år, nya möjligheter

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SIP Nordic - Analyser av råvarorSamtidigt som det är dags att summera ett ganska ljummet råvaruår är det hög tid att rikta blickarna mot 2012 års spåkula. Kommer industrimetallpriserna hålla emot, fortsätter guldet sin lyckliga resa under 2012 och hur heta är egentligen jordbruksråvarorna? Oavsett vad har vi ett spännande år framför oss där mycket kommer att styras av oron för en Eurokris. Råvaror har mer och mer blivit en självklar del av portföljen och samtidigt som de finansiella marknaderna kämpar mot extrem turbulens har råvaror klivit fram som räddare i nöden. Aktiemarknaden kommer troligtvis att fortsätta att famla i mörkret, ständigt hemsökta av oron om en europeisk statsskuldskris såväl som rädsla av en återkommande global recession. Det som talar för att råvaror, generellt, kommer att gå motsatt håll är bland annat tillväxtmarknadernas fortsatta tillväxt, försvagning av dollarn samt en fortsatt obalans i tillgång och efterfrågan.

Råvaror i det långa loppet

Råvaror har haft en otrolig utveckling sedan starten av detta millennium och om historien upprepar sig har råvaror, trots det oroliga börsläget, många goda år framför sig. Råvaror och aktiemarknaden har sedan 1870 alternerat om vilken marknad som presterat bäst. Under 1980 och 90 talet florerade aktiemarknaden samtidigt som råvarupriserna låg på bottennivåer. Detta gjorde att investeringar i gruvor, oljereservoarer och jordbruk inte ansågs sexiga nog att investera i. Och det är just detta som gett upphov till den positiva trend råvaror är i nu. Pga. Av bristande investeringar har vi i nuläget en obalans i tillgång och efterfrågan vilket driver upp priserna i de flesta råvarorna.

Rädsla trycker ned basmetallerna

Nu ska man ju inte titta sig blind på historisk data men det finns en del intressanta iakttagelser att beakta. En intressant iakttagelse är den negativa korrelationen mellan VIX index, ofta kallad fear index, och basmetallernas prisutveckling. En hög volatilitet betyder allt som oftast en nedåtgående aktietrend vilket ger avtryck i basmetallernas utveckling då marknaden tror på en avsvalnande tillväxt. Nu har VIX Index börjat stabiliseras och är på väg ned till mer normala nivåer. Kommer detta att resultera i att basmetallerna återigen klättrar norrut? Ja, för vissa metaller så finns det ett flertalet punkter som talar för det.

Diagram över basmetaller och VIX under år 2011

Vad gäller då för 2012?

Det mest troliga är att råvaror kommer att använda 2012 för att hämta andan för att sedan spänna bågen ordentligt inför 2013 hjälpta av en mer stabil ekonomisk utsikt samt ett åter ökande tillgångsunderskott. Trots detta finns det många guldkorn under 2012 och kom ihåg, man behöver inte alltid tro på uppgång.

Råvaruåret 2012 ser ut att bli mycket svårtippat då en ökad korrelation med aktiemarknaden talar för stagnerade prisutvecklingar. Jag sticker dock ut hakan och tror på uppgång i guld och platina. En sista kommentar: Ur kaos kommer alltid möjligheter.

Alexander Frick

 

Råvaror – Update

Guld – Trygg hamn eller inte

  • Guldets nedgång de senaste veckorna kan härledas till den generella panik som råder bland investerare. Investerare säljer av för att istället placera i likvida medel.
  • Den stigande dollartrenden har också påverkat guldpriset negativt. Under 2012 kommer dollarkursen studeras noga för att se var guldet bär av.
  • Guld har haft smått otroliga 11 plusår i rad. Nu när priset korrigerats nedåt talar mycket för att 2012 också blir ett bra år.

Analytikerkonsensus för guld år 2012

Silver

  • Silver är en mer använd industrimetall än guld. Ändå har silver seglat upp som god tvåa i racet om den trygga hamnen.
  • Överskottet av silver uppgår idag till 14%. Inför 2012 spås överskottet minska en aning till 9,8%.
  • Trots ett högt pris på silver är det långt kvar till ATH på 100 dollar (1978)
  • En fortsatt förstärkning av dollarn mot euron kommer troligtvis påverka negativt på silverpriset.

Analytikerkonsensus för silver år 2012

Platina

  • Sydafrikanska producenter, som står för den största delen av platinaproduktion, kämpar med fackliga problem och elavbrott. Något som kommer inverka positivt på platinakursen.
  • Fortsatt obalans i tillgång och efterfrågan talar för ett fortsatt högt pris.
  • Nuvarande tillgängligt platina räcker endast till 16 månaders konsumtion. Tillgängligt platina har minskat med 30% sedan 2001.

Analytikerkonsensus för platina år 2012

Brent olja

  • Oljelagerstatistiken pekar på mycket låga nivåer i USA. Någon som håller uppe oljepriset trots den globala oron.
  • Oron i Iran och de andra OPEC länderna kompenserar det oroliga börsläget. Ett oljepris som konsoliderar under början av 2012 är inte osannolikt.
  • Kan olja fortsätta hålla emot bra är det en av den mest intressanta placeringarna på marknaden. Om eller när den europeiska krisen får en lösning kommer oljepriset att påverkas positivt.

Analytikerkonsensus för olja (brent) år 2012

Koppar

  • Strejker i stora gruvor i Peru och Indonesien fortsätter att begränsa utbudssidan. Det ska dock vara nära en lösning men produktion lär halta en aning.
  • Koppar är mycket konjunkturskänsligt och följer ofta negativa aktietrender. Sedan början av året är koppar ned ca. 23%. Världens största kopparkonsument, Kina spås inte ha en lika hög tillväxt vilket kan påverka kopparpriset negativt.
  • Trenden i kopparpriset är dock avtagande men analytikerkåren ser positivt på kopparn inför 2012.

Koppar - Analytikerkonsensus för år 2012

Naturgas

  • Naturgaspriserna fortsätter sin resa söderut, delvis pga. en högre medeltemperatur i USA. 51% av USAs hushåll använder naturgas för uppvärmning.
  • Naturgas är en av de svåraste råvarorna att lagra. I priset på framtida leveranser ingår lagerkostnader, ränta och försäkring så trots att terminsmarknaden för naturgas ser ut att stå stilla, faller den fritt.
  • Naturgas har tappat nästan 70% sedan finanskrisen men kan tappa ytterligare 50% för att matcha de låga nivåerna som rådde under 90-talet.
  • Tekniskt handlas Naturgas i en negativ trend.

Naturgas - Analytikerkonsensus för år 2012

Majs

  • Den globala majsproduktionen spås nå rekordnivåer under början av 2012 trots minskad produktion i USA.
  • Det genomsnittliga priset spås vara 30 cents lägre än föregående räkenskapsår, enligt USDA.
  • USDA spår en nedgång i majspriset, uppbackat av ökad produktion i såväl Kina som Europa och Kanada samt gynnsamma globala väderförhållande.
  • Den tekniska trenden för majs är nedåtgående med en viktig stödnivå på 572 cents per bushel.

Majs år 2012 - Analytikerkonsensus

Vete

  • Den globala produktionen av vete spås stiga med 5.3% under första halvåret 2012, samtidigt som efterfrågan endast kommer att öka 3.3%, med ett totalt överskott om 10 miljoner ton.
  • Vete har tappat närmre 25% under de senaste året men fortfarande är priset på ca. 6 dollar tillräckligt attraktivt för att bönder ska fortsätta plantera. Ett ökande överskott är således att vänta.
  • Ytterligare faktorer som talar för en fortsatt nedåtgående trend är rädslan för en global recession där oron för att världens största veteimportör, Kina, ska dra i handbromsen.

Analytikerkonsensus för vete år 2012

Socker

  • Överskottet av socker har mer än halverats sedan maj.
  • Dåliga väderförhållanden i Brasilien har fått analytiker att revidera sockerskörden med nästan 20%.
  • Sockerproduktionen i Indien väntas fortfarande växa. Dock med blygsamma 8%, att jämföra med förra årets tillväxt på 25%.

Socker - Analytikerkonsensus år 2012

Bomull

  • Förra året rusade bomull med en nästan fördubblad kursuppgång. I år har läget varit annorlunda. Rekordskördar och svagare efterfrågan har tryckt ned bomullspriset rejält.
  • Trots en kraftig nedgång ligger bomullspriset på historiskt höga nivåer och en halvering av bomullspriset är inte otänkbart.
  • Det höga priset har återställt balansen i tillgång och efterfråga.
  • Trots extrem torka i USA har goda skördar i Kina och Indien täckt upp detta bortfall.
  • I dagsläget ligger genomsnittsinvesteraren i långa positioner men säljarna blir fler och fler.

Bomull - Analytikerkonsensus år 2012

 

[box]Denna uppdatering är producerat av SIP Nordic och publiceras i samarbete och med tillstånd på Råvarumarknaden.se[/box]

Ansvarsbegränsning

Detta produktblad utgör endast marknadsföring och har sammanställts av SIP Nordic Fondkommission AB.

Innehållet ger inte fullständig information avseende det finansiella instrumentet. Investerare uppmanas att del av prospekt och slutliga villkor, vilka finns tillgängliga på: www.rbsbank.se/markets, innan ett investeringsbeslut tas.

Förekommande exempel är simulerade och baseras på SIP Nordics egna beräkningar och antaganden, en person som använder andra data eller antaganden kan nå andra resultat. Administrativa avgifter och transaktionsavgifter påverkar den faktiska avkastningen.

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Analys

Metals price forecast: Lower Before Higher

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SEB - analysbrev på råvaror

Lower before higher

SEB - Prognoser på råvaror - Commodity

The world is slowing down along with fiscal and monetary tightening. The rapid rise in interest rates this year will work with a lag so the slowdown in the real economy is likely to continue. We expect metals prices to ease along with that. The continued deterioration in the Chinese property market is likely structural with growth shifting towards higher value sectors including green energy and EVs. Chinese credit expansion has started. Stronger demand for metals like copper, nickel and aluminium is likely to emerge in H2-23. Strong prices for metals over the coming decade due to sub-par capex spending over the past decade is likely.

Bjarne Schieldrop, Chief analyst commodities at SEB
Bjarne Schieldrop, Chief analyst commodities, SEB

Weakening macro and weakening demand. The world is now in the grip of a tightening craze amid inflation panic which was the result of the stimulus boom ignited by Covid-19 panic. The US expanded its M2 monetary base by 30% of GDP during the stimulus boom. Donald Trump earlier clamped down on immigration from Mexico/Latin America. Rampant consumer spending on capital goods together with an ultra-tight labor market then led to intense inflation pressure in the US. But also, in many other countries which also stimulated too much. The US is ahead of the curve with respect to interest rate hikes. The USD has rallied, forcing many central banks around the world to lift rates to defend their currencies as well as fighting their own inflationary pressures. The Japanese central bank has refrained from doing so and has instead intervened in the yen currency market for the first time since 1998. The year 2022 will likely be the worst selloff in global government bonds since 1949 as interest rates rise rapidly from very low levels. This is taking place following a decade where the world has been gorging on ultra-cheap debt. There is clearly a risk that something will break apart somewhere in the financial system as the world gallops through this extreme roller coaster ride of stimulus and tightening. On top of this we have and energy crisis in Europe where natural gas prices for year 2023 currently is priced at 700% of normal levels. War in Ukraine, risk for the use of nuclear weapons, an enduring cool-down of the Chinese property market and continued lock-downs in China due to Covid-19 is adding plenty of uncertain elements.

Downside price risks for metals over the coming 6-9 months. The significant rise in rates around the world will work with a lag. There can be up to a 12-month lag from rates starts to rise to when they take real effect. Continued economic cool-down in the economy is thus likely. Chinese politicians seem unlikely to run yet another round of property market-based stimulus. As such there are clearly downside risks to global economic growth and industrial metals prices over the coming 6 months.

China may be a “White Swan Event” in H2-23 onward. LME’s China seminar in London on Monday 24 October this year was very interesting. The brightest spot in our view was Jinny Yang, the Chief China economist at ICBC Standard Bank. She stated that China may turn out to be a “white swan event” in H2-2023. Further that the Chinese economy now is on a decade long type of transition period. Away from property focused growth. With a shift instead to technology and innovation, telecoms and energy transition, consumer demand side economy and higher value and more advanced sectors. The property market will be a fading sector with respect to growth. Chinese politicians are fully committed to the energy transition. No slowdown in there. Credit expansion has already started. The real effect of that will emerge in H2-23. The new growth focus will be different from before. But it will still imply lots of metals like aluminium, copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, manganese, and other special metals. There will be less copper for pipes and wiring for housing but there will be more copper for EVs, Solar power, Wind power and power networks etc.

Copper: Struggling supply from Chile, rising supply from Africa while Russian exports keeps flowing to market. The Chinese housing market normally accounts for 20% of global copper demand. So, slowing Chinese housing market is bad for copper. Russian exports keep flowing to SE Asia where it is re-exported. Good supply growth is expected from Africa in 2023. Supply from Chile is struggling with falling ore grades, political headwinds, and mining strikes. Demand is projected to boom over the coming decades while investments in new mines have been sub-par over the past decade. So strong prices in the medium to longer term. But in the short-term the negative demand forces will likely have the upper hand.

Nickel: Tight high-quality nickel market but surplus for low-quality nickel. There is currently a plentiful supply of low-grade nickel with weak stainless-steel demand and strong demand for high quality nickel for EV batteries. The result is a current USD 5-6000/ton price premium for high-quality vs. low-quality nickel. High-quality LME grade nickel now only accounts for 25% of the global nickel market. Over the coming decade there will be strong demand growth for high-quality nickel for EV batteries, but high-quality NiSO4 will take center stage. The price of high-quality nickel over the coming decade will depend on how quickly the world can ramp up low-grade to high-grade conversion capacity.

Aluminium: Russian production and exports keeps flowing at normal pace to the market through different routes. Supply from the western world set to expand by 1.3 m ton pa in 2023, the biggest expansion in a decade. Demand is projected to grow strongly over the decade to come with energy transition and EVs being strong sources of demand. Western premiums likely to stay elevated versus Asian premiums to attract metal. Increasing focus on low carbon aluminium. But weakness before strength.

SEB commodities price forecast:

SEB commodities price forecast

Chinese credit cycle vs industrial metals. Chinese credit expansion has already started.

Chinese credit cycle vs industrial metals
Source: SEB calculations, data from Blberg

This report has been compiled by SEB´s Commodity Research, a division within Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken AB (publ) (”SEB”), to provide background information only.

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Europe’s energy policy unravels a potential advantage for US energy over Europe

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WisdomTree
WidsomTree

The clock is ticking for Europe to shield its economy amidst the current energy crisis. The cost of electricity across the European bloc is nearly 10 times the 10-year average in response to Russia cutting back natural gas supplies in retaliation to sanctions. There has been a substantial increase in the share of supply of Liquidifies Natural Gas (LNG) and alternative suppliers as a direct replacement of waning Russian gas supply.

Figure 1: Natural gas flows in the European market, first half 2022 versus first half 2021

Karta hur importen av naturgas till Europa har förändrats
Source: Bruegel, WisdomTree as of 6 September 2022. Please note: Arrows width indicates size of 2022 flow.

European leaders are racing to come up with a plan on energy intervention in the power markets. One of the measures being touted is imposing an energy windfall tax on oil and gas profits to help households and businesses survive this upcoming winter season. The plan is to re-channel these unexpected profits from the energy sector to help domestic consumers and companies pay these high bills. The windfall tax on the oil and gas companies should be treated as a “solidarity contribution,” according to European Commission (EC) President, Ursula von der Leyen.

Imposing a windfall tax on those profiting from the war

A windfall tax would impose a levy on the revenues generated by non-gas producing companies when market prices exceed €200 per megawatt hour (Mwh) and redistribute excess revenues to vulnerable companies and households. There has been greater consensus among other European Union (EU) countries on the windfall tax compared to other parts of the European Commission’s 5-point plan. This includes – setting a price cap on Russian gas, a mandatory reduction in peak electricity demand, funding for ailing utility companies, a windfall tax on fossil fuel companies and changes to collateral requirements for electricity companies. The EC’s plan will need to meet the approval of the bloc before being enforced. The most controversial issue remains the Russian price cap – aimed at penalising Russia for weaponising energy.

Coordinated energy policy needed despite different energy mix across EU bloc

There are major differences between member states based on those that rely on coal, nuclear or renewable power owing to which imposing a one energy policy will be challenging. Austria, Hungary, and Slovakia, known to import large amounts of Russian gas are against the price cap on Russian gas. On the other hand, a number of  EU countries including France, Italy, and Poland, support a cap, but argue it should apply to all imported forms of the fuel, including LNG. Germany is undecided but fears the disagreements on the price caps risk spoiling EU unity. Spain, a big generator of wind and solar power was quick to draw criticism of the proposed €200/Mwh as it does not correspond to the real costs and fails to support electrification and the deployment of renewables.

In the US, various Senators including Senate Finance Chair Ron Wyden, have proposed legislation that would double the tax rate of large oil and gas companies excess profits. However, given the current political climate it seems increasingly unlikely that these proposals would gain any traction in Congress.

Europe’s energy policy likely to put a strain on capex in the near term

Since the oil price plunge from 2014 to 2016 alongside climate change awareness and Environmental Social and Governance (ESG) mandates, the energy sector saw a sharp decline in capital expenditure (capex). Since then, capex in the global energy sector has failed to attain the levels last seen at the peak in 2014. While capex trends in Europe’s energy sector had begun to outpace that of the US, driven mainly by a rise in the share of spending on clean energy, we believe the impending energy crisis and energy policy including the national windfall levies in Europe are likely to disincentivise capex in Europe compared to the US over the medium term. High prices are encouraging several countries to step up fossil fuel investment, as they seek to secure and diversify their sources of supply.

Source: Bloomberg, WisdomTree as of 31 August 2022.

The divergent energy policies and prevalent supply situations in the US and Europe opens up a potential opportunity in the energy sector. The energy sector has been the unique bright spot in global equity markets in 2022 posting the strongest earnings results in H1 2022. Despite its strong price performance, the US energy sector trades at a price to earnings (P/E) ratio of 8x and has a dividend yield of 3%. In September 2008, the energy sector had a 12.5% weight in the S&P 500 and was the fourth largest sector by market capitalisation in the world’s largest economy and equity market. Fast forward to today, the energy sector accounts for only 4% of the S&P 500 Index. While the future trajectory is greener, the world has come to terms with the fact that we will require oil and gas in the interim in order to fulfil our energy requirements. Investment is increasing in all parts of the energy sector, but the main boost in recent years has come from the power sector – mainly in renewables and grids – and from increased spending on end-use efficiency. As Europe plans to reduce its reliance on Russian energy supply, it will become more reliant on US LNG imports. This should fuel further investment in the US energy sector in the interim.

Aneeka Gupta, Director, Macroeconomic Research, WisdomTree

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Analys

Agricultural commodities could offer a hedge against inflation

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WisdomTree
WidsomTree

Agricultural commodity prices have been buoyed higher by rising grain and oilseed prices. At a time, when global equities have sold off by nearly 13.88% amidst soaring inflation and tightening liquidity conditions, agricultural commodities are up 26.8%. There are a plethora of supply side issues emanating from the war that are likely to continue to drive prices higher – the rise of protectionism, higher fertiliser costs, changing biofuel mandates and adverse weather conditions to name a few. The Russia-Ukraine war has had ripple effects from disrupting supply chains to raising fertiliser costs.

Rising protectionism buoys agricultural commodities higher

The war-related disruptions have also given rise to protectionism. To cite a few examples in 2022– India, the world’s third largest wheat producer, announced it would restrict wheat exports to manage domestic supplies of the grain, which led to a sharp rise in wheat prices. Indonesia also announced an export ban on palm oil on April 28, but the ban was lifted on May 19 after hundreds of farmers rallied to protest the move. In a tight oil-seeds markets, the initial announcement led soybean oil, an alternative to palm oil, sharply higher.

Source: WisdomTree as of 7 June 2022

Higher biofuel blending mandates to bolster demand for corn and soybean oil

Changes in the biofuel blending mandates are also poised to increase demand for agricultural commodities. The US is home to the world’s largest biofuel market. The Biden administration is ordering refiners to boost the use of biofuels such as corn-based ethanol. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requiring refiners to mix 20.63 billion gallons of renewable fuels into gasoline and diesel this year, marking a 9.5% increase over last year’s target. This will put pressure on refiners to blend more biofuel into their gasoline production this year, resulting in a net positive impact on the biofuels industry. Grains such as corn stand to benefit owing to their high starch content and relatively easy conversion to ethanol. Amidst waning stockpiles of diesel, Brazil is also considering increasing the biodiesel blend to 15% from 10% (i.e. the amount of soybean oil blended into trucking fuel). This has the potential to bolster demand for soybeans at a time when soybeans are already in short supply due to droughts in South America and US plantings trail last year’s pace.

Rising fertiliser costs are weakening demand, in turn lowering yields

The Russia-Ukraine conflict has caused disruptions in fertiliser production and material price increases, which has put farmer margins and agricultural yields at risk elsewhere, driving the prices of most agricultural commodities higher. Russia and Ukraine account for a significant share of the global fertiliser trade. Russia produces 9% of global nitrogen fertiliser, 10% of global phosphate fertiliser, and 20% of global potash fertiliser. It exports more than two thirds of its production of each product. Belarus produces an additional 17% of global potash and exports most of it.

Owing to its high soil quality, Argentina tends to use less fertilisers, but Brazil (the world’s largest importer of fertilisers) of which 85% of its needs are imported, is likely to feel the impact more. Russia alone accounts for 25% of Brazil’s total fertiliser imports. Farmers can also plant more soybeans, which require less fertilisers than corn. The US and global corn balance are set to continue to tighten, which suggests that the current high price environment is set to linger. The high prices and low availability of fertilisers is making farmers reduce usage and is also resulting in lower fertiliser prices similar to the trend witnessed back in 2008.

Ammonia prices
Source: Bloomberg, WisdomTree as of 27 May 2022.

Speculative positioning garnering momentum among agricultural commodities 

According to data from the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), net speculative positioning in agricultural commodities has risen considerably since the covid pandemic. Tighter supply coupled with stockpiling by national governments concerned about food security has led to a rise in agricultural commodity prices. Not only has net speculative positioning on agricultural commodities risen versus its own history but also in comparison to other commodity subsectors, as illustrated in the chart below:

Speculative positions
Source: WisdomTree, CFTC, Bloomberg as of 25 May 2022.

Adverse weather conditions impact agricultural commodities

El Niño and La Niña are the warm and cool phases of a recurring climate pattern across the tropical Pacific—the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or “ENSO” for short. The pattern shifts back and forth irregularly every two to seven years, and each phase triggers predictable disruptions of temperature, precipitation. The current La Niña has been around since October 2021. It has been responsible for the South American droughts, milder weather in Southern parts of US and heavy rainfalls across the Pacific Northwest. There is a 51% chance La Niña could continue into the December to February period, with those odds down from last month’s forecast of 58% according to the US climate prediction centre. The waters across the equatorial Pacific Ocean are expected to stay cool or be close to normal between June and September, which means the influence on weather patterns won’t be enough to disrupt tropical storms and hurricanes in the Atlantic.  

Conclusion

Agricultural commodities have posted a strong performance in 2022. Yet there remain plenty of factors that could drive the performance of this commodity subsector even higher. Agricultural commodities are unique owing to their high dependence on weather conditions that make them volatile but also offer diversification benefits.

Aneeka Gupta, Director, Macroeconomic Research, WisdomTree

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